Behold, the recently updated AstroMundus PhD Guide! Credit is also due to the IAYC Alumni who helped a lot. I felt that I should share this on here, rather than leaving it to collect dust.
Note: for the US and Canada, here is an incredibly useful list of all the universities which do and do not require the GRE.
I also found these guides to be rather good. There is one about conferences, and another is a guide on writing a PhD Thesis.
As always, let me know if anything is missing.
Studentships during your PhD
ESO – Spend 1-2 years with ESO, either in Germany or Chile, as a part of your PhD.
ESA – The ESA Network/Partnering Initiative Programme is offering a possibility to do a PhD, or part of it, within a space related subject in cooperation with ESA.
ING – The Isaac Newton Group Support and Research Studentship Programme offers astronomy and astrophysics PhD, MSc and undergraduate students the unique opportunity to spend one year at ING as INT support astronomers, and to be involved in ING projects related to instrumental, optical, or software development, improvement and/or characterisation.
CfA – The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) Predoctoral Program offers graduate students the opportunity to carry out all or part of their thesis research at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.
Greenberg Fellowship – The Greenberg foundation offers a PhD student from a developing country the possibility of staying 9 months in the Sackler laboratory.
OCA – [New for 2019!] The Henri Poincaré Junior Program of Côte d’Azur Observatory offers internships for PhD students for two months or more. There is a condition that you must be from a country where astrophysical and Earth sciences are in development.